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Estonia – EE

EU regions: Estonia

map of Estonia EE
Labour market policy
public expenditure on labour market policies as % of GDP20211.39
public expenditure on active labour market policies20210.402
Life long learning
life long learning participation202221.1
Precarious work
percentage of employees ususally working on Sunday202110.1
percentage of employees ususally working at nights20215.4
percentage of employees with temporary contracts2023q23.3
Part time jobs and flexible employment
working hours on full time job2023q238
percentage of workers usually working from home202212.2
percentage of part time workers2023q213.34
percentage of part time workers, men2023q28.91
percentage of part time workers, women2023q217.88
Minimum and average wage
share of salaries on GDP2023q253.5
minimum monthly was as aproportion of average monthly earnings in industry and services202238.8
monthly minimum wage in €2023q3725
monthly minimum wage in PPS2023q3766.7
annual net earnings of a full-time single worker without children earning an average wage in PPS202218 781
Gender differences
gender pay gap202120.5
employment of mothers of more than 3 children202266.6
healthy life expectancy of men vs. women2021116.55
gender gap in employment rate2023q297.93
gender gap in unemployment rate2023q2115.38
Graduates and young people
unemployment rate of youth with elementary education2023q233.5
unemployment rate of youth with secondary education2023q111.6
Gross domestic product
GDP per capita in PPS of EU average202287
Payable interest of public debt as % od GDP20220.1
employment rate2023q276.4
Social exclusion
people at risk of poverty or social exclusion202023.2

More on wikipedia wikidata Q191 on OpenStreetMap Estonia slovensky: EE

Subregions: Estonia, Estonia

demographic pyramid EE Estonia based on economic activity – employed, unemploye, inactive


unemployment rate2023q27
youth unemployment rate2023q216.4
unemployment rate of low educated people2023q214.2
Long term unemployment
long term unemployment2023q21.6
share of long term unemployed2023q226.8

Composition of population according to age group, education and economic activity, Estonia

Age groupLow educationMiddle educationHigh education
Y20-29P: 17.6
E: 10.9; U: 2.4; I: 4.3
P: 77.2
E: 57.0; U: 6.3; I: 13.9
P: 37.1
E: 32.7; U: 1.3; I: 3.1
Y30-39P: 22.6
E: 15.8; U: 1.5; I: 5.3
P: 86.6
E: 74.0; U: 4.7; I: 7.9
P: 88.4
E: 78.7; U: 3.3; I: 6.4
Y40-49P: 24.0
E: 18.4; U: 1.1; I: 4.5
P: 78.0
E: 67.3; U: 3.2; I: 7.5
P: 80.3
E: 73.6; U: 2.9; I: 3.8
Y50-59P: 12.9
E: 8.0; U: 0.8; I: 4.1
P: 92.0
E: 76.8; U: 3.6; I: 11.6
P: 65.5
E: 59.8; U: 2.4; I: 3.3
Y60-69P: 15.8
E: 4.0; U: 0.2; I: 11.6
P: 84.3
E: 40.9; U: 1.8; I: 41.6
P: 63.9
E: 38.6; U: 1.2; I: 24.1

Note: in thousands in 2022, according to labour force sample survey. P – total population, E – employed, U – unemployed, I – number of ecnomically inactive


demographic pyramid EE 1996 Estonia, population pyramid of Estonia
number of inhabitants20221 331 796
population density202230.9
old-age dependency ratio202232.3
Population ageing
unemployment rate – over 55 years2023q28.4
aggregate replacement ratio20220.44
aggregate replacement ratio – females20220.46
life expectancy of a 50 year old202129.4
healty life expectancy at 50 years202115.1
demographic pyramid EE Estonia

Employment by sectors, Estonia

NACE r2%NACE r2%
A17.73 %B-E136.520 %
F58.39 %G-I162.124 %
J36.75 %K16.92 %
L10.62 %M_N50.57 %
O-Q154.523 %R-U37.15 %
TOTAL680.8100 %

Data for the period year 2022. Source of the data is Eurostat, table [lfst_r_lfe2en2].

Employment by sectors, Estonia, 2022

From Wikipedia:

Estonia (Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsʲti] (listen)), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a country on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second-most-spoken Finnic language.

The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C. Ancient Estonians were some of the last European pagans to be Christianized, following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Danes, Swedes, Poles and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the 19th and early 20th centuries. This culminated in independence from Russia in 1920 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I. Initially democratic, subsequent to the Great Depression, Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule since 1934 during the Era of Silence. During World War II (1939–1945), Estonia was repeatedly contested and occupied by the Soviet Union and Germany, ultimately being incorporated into the former. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. In 1987 the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of de facto independence on 20 August 1991.

Other: European Union, Greece, Estonia, Spain

Neighbours: Latvia

Subregions: Estonia, Estonia

Suggested citation: Michal Páleník: EU regions - Estonia – EE, IZ Bratislava, retrieved from: https://www.iz.sk/​en/projects/eu-regions/EE