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Romania – RO

EU regions: Romania

map of Romania RO
Labour market policy
public expenditure on labour market policies as % of GDP20200.103
public expenditure on active labour market policies20200.034
Life long learning
life long learning participation20225.4
Precarious work
percentage of employees ususally working on Sunday20218.5
percentage of employees ususally working at nights20215.4
percentage of employees with temporary contracts2023q22.2
Part time jobs and flexible employment
working hours on full time job2023q239.8
percentage of workers usually working from home20221.4
percentage of part time workers2023q23.23
percentage of part time workers, men2023q23.52
percentage of part time workers, women2023q22.84
Minimum and average wage
share of salaries on GDP2023q238.1
minimum monthly was as aproportion of average monthly earnings in industry and services202148.3
monthly minimum wage in €2023q3604.41
monthly minimum wage in PPS2023q31052.86
annual net earnings of a full-time single worker without children earning an average wage in PPS202216 316
Gender differences
gender pay gap20213.6
employment of mothers of more than 3 children202235
healthy life expectancy of men vs. women202199.19
gender gap in employment rate2023q276.33
gender gap in unemployment rate2023q284.48
Graduates and young people
unemployment rate of youth with elementary education2023q237.7
unemployment rate of youth with secondary education2023q215.6
unemployment rate of youth with tertiary education2022q422.9
Gross domestic product
GDP per capita in PPS of EU average202174
Payable interest of public debt as % od GDP20221.2
employment rate2023q263
Social exclusion
people at risk of poverty or social exclusion202030.4

More on wikipedia wikidata Q218 on OpenStreetMap Romania slovensky: RO

Subregions: Macroregiunea Unu, Macroregiunea Doi, Macroregiunea Trei, Macroregiunea Patru

demographic pyramid RO Romania based on economic activity – employed, unemploye, inactive


unemployment rate2023q25.4
youth unemployment rate2023q221.2
unemployment rate of low educated people2023q215
Long term unemployment
long term unemployment2023q22.2
share of long term unemployed2023q239.7

Composition of population according to age group, education and economic activity, Romania

Age groupLow educationMiddle educationHigh education
Y20-29P: 350.8
E: 153.7; U: 40.6; I: 156.5
P: 1319.8
E: 674.1; U: 88.1; I: 557.6
P: 301.9
E: 232.3; U: 15.3; I: 54.3
Y30-39P: 444.9
E: 215.5; U: 37.3; I: 192.1
P: 1400.8
E: 1150.9; U: 51.5; I: 198.4
P: 675.5
E: 627.8; U: 9.1; I: 38.6
Y40-49P: 541.6
E: 289.1; U: 39.5; I: 213.0
P: 1745.8
E: 1464.7; U: 51.7; I: 229.4
P: 656.9
E: 634.8; U: 5.6; I: 16.5
Y50-59P: 428.8
E: 198.6; U: 21.7; I: 208.5
P: 1867.0
E: 1377.6; U: 52.8; I: 436.6
P: 343.9
E: 315.4; U: 1.3; I: 27.2
Y60-69P: 647.4
E: 71.7; U: 6.4; I: 569.3
P: 1491.6
E: 268.1; U: 5.8; I: 1217.7
P: 207.5
E: 69.9; U: 0.7; I: 136.9

Note: in thousands in 2022, according to labour force sample survey. P – total population, E – employed, U – unemployed, I – number of ecnomically inactive


demographic pyramid RO 1996 Romania, population pyramid of Romania
number of inhabitants202219 042 455
population density202281.6
old-age dependency ratio202230.3
Population ageing
unemployment rate – over 55 years2023q23.3
aggregate replacement ratio20220.52
aggregate replacement ratio – females20220.52
life expectancy of a 50 year old202125.5
healty life expectancy at 50 years202112.3
demographic pyramid RO Romania

Employment by sectors, Romania

NACE r2%NACE r2%
A878.411 %B-E1797.723 %
F765.210 %G-I2129.227 %
J201.83 %K115.11 %
L25.20 %M_N434.96 %
O-Q1241.616 %R-U217.33 %
TOTAL7806.5100 %

Data for the period year 2022. Source of the data is Eurostat, table [lfst_r_lfe2en2].

Employment by sectors, Romania, 2022

From Wikipedia:

Romania ( (listen) ro-MAY-nee-ə; Romanian: România [romɨˈni.a] (listen)) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east. It has a pred­ominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi), Romania is the 12th largest country and also the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having almost 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, and other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, and Brașov.

The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km (1,775 mi), coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta. The Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m (8,346 ft).

Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I after declaring its neutrality in 1914, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers starting with 1916, Bukovina, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, and Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, and Northern Transylvania to Hungary.

Other: Serbia, Romania

Neighbours: Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungary

Subregions: Macroregiunea Unu, Macroregiunea Doi, Macroregiunea Trei, Macroregiunea Patru

Suggested citation: Michal Páleník: EU regions - Romania – RO, IZ Bratislava, retrieved from: https://www.iz.sk/​en/projects/eu-regions/RO